An unusual rhetorical device, , appears in several places in the play. Examples are found in Ophelia's speech at the end of the nunnery scene: "Th' of the fair state" and "And I, of ladies most ". Many scholars have found it odd that Shakespeare would, seemingly arbitrarily, use this rhetorical form throughout the play. One explanation may be that was written later in Shakespeare's life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot. Linguist George T. Wright suggests that hendiadys had been used deliberately to heighten the play's sense of duality and dislocation. Pauline Kiernan argues that Shakespeare changed English drama forever in because he "showed how a character's language can often be saying several things at once, and contradictory meanings at that, to reflect fragmented thoughts and disturbed feelings". She gives the example of Hamlet's advice to Ophelia, "get thee to a nunnery", which is simultaneously a reference to a place of chastity and a slang term for a brothel, reflecting Hamlet's confused feelings about female sexuality.
departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways. For example, in Shakespeare's day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of in his : that a drama should focus on action, not character. In , Shakespeare reverses this so that it is through the , not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet's motives and thoughts. The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action, except in the "bad" quarto. At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene, Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: in the next scene, however, when Claudius appears, he is suddenly tame. Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play's themes of confusion and duality. also contains a recurrent Shakespearean device, a , a literary device or conceit in which one story is told during the action of another story.
The discovery in 1823 of Q1—whose existence had been quite unsuspected—caused considerable interest and excitement, raising many questions of editorial practice and interpretation. Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean "". Yet Q1 has value: it contains stage directions (such as Ophelia entering with a lute and her hair down) that reveal actual stage practices in a way that Q2 and F1 do not; it contains an entire scene (usually labelled 4.6) that does not appear in either Q2 or F1; and it is useful for comparison with the later editions. The major deficiency of Q1 is in the language: particularly noticeable in the opening lines of the famous "" soliloquy: "To be, or not to be, aye there's the point. / To die, to sleep, is that all? Aye all: / No, to sleep, to dream, aye marry there it goes." However, the scene order is more coherent, without the problems of Q2 and F1 of Hamlet seeming to resolve something in one scene and enter the next drowning in indecision. New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace has noted that "Q1's more linear plot design is certainly easier […] to follow […] but the simplicity of the Q1 plot arrangement eliminates the alternating plot elements that correspond to Hamlet's shifts in mood."
The music-and if possible it should be the same music foreverybody-is the most important ingredient. Its function is toprevent thought and conversation, and to shut out any naturalsound, such as the song of birds or the whistling of the wind, thatmight otherwise intrude. The radio is already consciously used forthis purpose by innumerable people. In very many English homes theradio is literally never turned off, though it is manipulated fromtime to time so as to make sure that only light music will come outof it. I know people who will keep the radio playing all through ameal and at the same time continue talking just loudly enough forthe voices and the music to cancel out. This is done with adefinite purpose. The music prevents the conversation from becomingserious or even coherent, while the chatter of voices stops onefrom listening attentively to the music and thus prevents the onsetof that dreaded thing, thought. For:
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To begin with, writing in 1940, Burnham takes a German victorymore or less for granted. Britain is described as "dissolving", andas displaying "all the characteristics which have distinguisheddecadent cultures in past historical transitions", while theconquest and integration of Europe which Germany achieved in 1940is described as "irreversible". "England," writes Burnham, "nomatter with what non-European allies, cannot conceivably hope toconquer the European continent." Even if Germany should somehowmanage to lose the war, she could not be dismembered or reduced tothe status of the Weimar Republic, but is bound to remain as thenucleus of a unified Europe. The future map of the world, with itsthree great super-states is, in any case, already settled in itsmain outlines: and "the nuclei of these three super-states are,whatever may be their future names, the previously existingnations, Japan, Germany, and the United States."
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The hardest hit area was the province of Quang Tri, just south of the Demilitarized Zone, where an estimated 3,489 villages were repeatedly bombed. In April 1972, the province was hit with the heaviest B-52 bombing of the entire war. Forty B-52s flattened a “box” two miles long and one-half mile wide. The capital city and the southeastern quadrant of Quang Tri were obliterated. Arthur Westing, an ecologist who had worked for the U.S. Forest Service, experienced combat in Korea, and made three previous trips to Indochina to study the war zones in Cambodia, reported after a 1973 visit to the Quang Tri province that he was “unprepared for the utter devastation that confronted us wherever we turned.… Never were we out of sight of an endless panorama of crater fields. As far as we could determine not a single permanent building, urban or rural, remained intact; no private dwellings, no schools, no libraries, no churches or pagodas and no hospitals. Moreover, every last bridge and even culvert had been bombed to bits. The one rail line through the province was also obliterated.”
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Thank you for your reply, and my apologies for not replying to you earlier. I wish I could answer your question fully. My strong sense, alas, is that the current trends are irreversible.